lake origin and classification

That Which We Call a Lake by Any Other Name,, We are grateful to J.P. Doubek for his assistance in preparing the GIS map, and we thank the Starbucks on the corner of St. Denis and Ontario Streets in Montréal for providing the caffeine that fuelled our initial conversation about the intriguing case of lake nomenclature. The Laurentian Great Lakes were excluded, and there were no consistently available accompanying data in any of these lists on lake morphometry or geographical coordinates. For example, we expected that lakes in regions that were originally settled by English immigrants (e.g., New England) should thus reflect the predominant naming patterns in England. The chemical-biological changes within a lake’s history offer a fine example of ecological succession. In Middle English, lake, as a descendant of the Old English word, also could mean "stream; river gully; ditch; marsh; grave; pit of hell," and this might have influenced the form of the borrowed word. Whether a lake is small, big or v ery large. Icag, territory or district. Lakes in this classification have the least restrictive rules for property owners. Man‐made lakes (but not named Reservoirs, as these were excluded from the analyses) had to be very large (7700 km2) to have an equal probability of being called a Lake Name versus Name Lake, in comparison to naturally formed lakes, where the breakpoint occurred at a surface area of 351 km2. Lakes lie on land and are not part of the ocean, and therefore are distinct from lagoons, and are also larger and deeper than ponds. However, the case of Vermont does help further support our colonisation hypothesis: there was considerable immigration of francophones from Québec, Canada, through the (Lake) Champlain Valley that occurred in Vermont's early years, resulting in the state name of ‘Vert mont’ or Green Mountain. Thus, we hypothesised that the varied lake nomenclature across North America may also result from the languages of the different major colonising groups from Europe. If you are uncertain about the classification of a lake or river and the dimensional standards that apply, contact your local planning and zoning office. A Data Lake is a storage repository that can store large amount of structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data. We observed significant effects of latitude and longitude on the likelihood of lake nomenclature. Learn about our remote access options, Department of Biological Sciences and Groupe de Recherche Interuniversitaire en Limnologie et en Environnement Aquatique (GRIL), University of Quebec at Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, Canada, Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, U.S.A. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Hutchinson presented in it a comprehensive analysis of the origin of lakes and proposed what is a widely accepted classification of lakes according to their origin. The first classical work with a specific focus on the study of lake forms, describing their genesis and role in a broad limnological perspective, was Limnological Methods by Welch ().The source of morphometric data quantifying the size and form of lakes is the bathymetric map and such maps are today generally derived from echosounding, a technique that became more widely used after 1948. "deep red coloring matter," 1610s, from French laque (15c., see lac), from which it was obtained. Buy cipla tadalafil. Low productive oligotrophic lakes are generally deep and clear with little aquatic plant growth. To test our hypothesis on settlement origin in North America, we also examined a list of 1722 Canadian lakes obtained from Wikipedia ( using click‐throughs to provincial sites (accessed 13 September 2015). Early History of the lake family. A lake (from the Latin word lacus) is an inland body of water, not part of the ocean, that is larger and deeper than a pond and is localized at the bottom of a basin. These latitudinal and longitudinal relationships remained significant even after the effects of lake surface area were controlled for in multiple logistic regression models that included both predictors. Depending on its origin, a lake may occur anywhere within a river basin. Compensation and Classification is responsible for the development and administration of the city’s classification program; however, every employee has a responsibility to ensure its success. 2d). The patterns in English lake names remained to be verified, but as we listed the English lakes we knew, they mostly seemed to use Name Lake (including Windermere, for which ‘mere’ means inland sea, derived from the French ‘mer’). It is a place to store every type of data in its native format with no fixed limits on account size or file. This model had a lower AICc than all single variable models (i.e., lake area, latitude, state, longitude and ecoregion), regardless of whether minimum AICc or BIC stopping rules were implemented in the stepwise regressions. Across the U.S.A., lakes with larger surface areas were more likely to have a Lake Name, but there was no significant relationship between nomenclature and maximum depth. Regardless of lake origin, we observed the same significant relationship between lake area and lake nomenclature. 2a). North American lakes in the U.S.A. (and Canada) do not have the naming consistency of lakes in England, Spain, France or Germany because of the mixed influence of these various countries with different conventions. The dominance of different Canadian provinces by either English or French settlement provided an excellent opportunity for comparing lake nomenclature patterns in another country in North America. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Moving westward and southward in the U.S.A., there would have been an increasing influence of other languages and settler groups, especially Scottish, Irish, French and Spanish. States using exclusively Name Lake were Delaware, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and West Virginia (Fig. e.g. d) Nature of Inflow-outflow. The common notion is "basin.". The full text of this article hosted at is unavailable due to technical difficulties. Finally, our expectation of lake name convention based on the origin of European settlement was largely substantiated by a comparison of lakes across Canada for which only name information by province was readily available. Of our final dataset of 814 NLA ‘lakes’, 158 (19%) had a Lake Name and the remaining 656 (81%) had a Name Lake (Fig. Maryland, the heaviest user of Lake Names, was originally mapped by the 16th century Spanish Ajacán Mission, also serving as a refuge for some French‐speaking Acadians exiled from Canada in the 1750s (Griffiths, 1992), and for some religious refugees of the French Revolution. We note that there are several issues with this analysis that may influence our results. As such, the Laurentian Great Lakes (Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, Ontario and Superior) serve as classic examples, although they were not included in our analyses. It was formed by tectonic activity. The 11 major lake types are tectonic lakes, volcanic lakes, landslide lakes, gla… Of the 814 U.S. ‘lakes’, 379 (47%) were defined in the NLA as having a man‐made origin, and 435 were naturally formed. Resource classification is one of the basic tools used by resource managers. Examining naming patterns by EPA ecoregion and by state revealed that Lake Names were more common in the southern states and along the eastern seaboard, regardless of their surface area. The Lake family name was found in the USA, the UK, Canada, and Scotland between 1840 and 1920. These states were largely settled by English colonists, and the lake naming convention likely followed the standards observed in their country of origin. The Great Rift Valley in Africa harbors, from north to south, a chain of lakes like Albert, Edward, Tanganyika and Malawi. Lakes are commonly classified based on their productivity. Lake – Classification of Lakes Lakes are among the most varied features of the earth’s surface. Fluvial lakes. The Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Salt Lake were excluded from the NLA sampling programme, as were waterbodies not classified as lakes (e.g., swamps) in the U.S. National Hydrography Dataset (NHD; Dewald, 2006). New York had the highest population of Lake families in 1840. There is also documented French Huguenot and Acadian immigration into the Carolinas, with South Carolina having the largest French population of the 13 original colonies (Edgar, 1998). Tadalafil cost in india. The first element in a lake's origin is an environmental force and is the facet of its natural history most commonly used by scientists to guide the general classification of lake basins. Lake surface area is indeed a major factor, promoting the use of Lake Name. 3), mirroring the longitudinal and latitudinal results described above (likelihood ratio test, χ2 = 29.93, P = 0.005). There are several type, kinds and categories of lakes in the world. There was no effect of maximum depth on lake nomenclature (P = 0.23; Fig. However, there are several other less visible lake characteristics that are just as significant, yet rarely discussed: namely the shape and structure of a lake basin. Given the increasing amount of lake information available in national databases (e.g., the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Lakes Assessment), the last time we embarked on this discussion with each other, it seemed a propitious moment to confront this question of lake nomenclature directly with data. All waterbodies included in the NLA were permanent freshwater lakes, reservoirs or ponds with a surface area >4 ha and a maximum depth ≥1 m (Peck et al., 2013). Unlike France and Spain, where Lake Name (Lac Nom or Lago Nombre, respectively), is always used due to linguistic convention, there was much more variability in lake nomenclature in Great Britain and Ireland. Further investigation revealed that in the French and Spanish languages, the only limnological nomenclature possible is Lake Name (Lac Nom or Lago Nombre, respectively). Analysis of available databases of lake nomenclature in Europe and Canada suggests that these geographical shifts in lake names may be due to the main European colonist source countries that settled these regions, with Lake Name predominating in countries where Gaelic and Romance linguistic influences were strongest. Probably not from lacus, a lake, as no consideralile body of Waaler exists in some of the localities so called ; but either from lalw as applied to any small rivulet in the western counties, or from a hard pronunciation of the A- Sax. Such terms do not appear to have not carried over to the naming of U.S. lakes, at least as can be inferred from the NLA waterbodies. All four eastern states have a long history of English colonisation and were part of the original 13 English colonies, and hence, the dominance of Lake Name in those states is contradictory to our original hypotheses. Differences in state sizes and number of lakes per state likely account for some this variation. We thank Philip Taylor of the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Edinburgh, for providing the U.K. A termination of many names of places and families, as Kerslake, Shiplake, Aslake, Timberlake, Westlake, Eastlake. George Evelyn Hutchinson (1903–1991) provided one of the most extensive surveys available on the origins of lake basins in the first chapter of his four-volume series, A Treatise on Limnology ( Hutchinson, 1957 ). Lakes with a larger surface area are more imposing and impressive to a human standing on their beaches, and perhaps more likely to be named Lake Name than Name Lake. Of the remaining 1096 lakes with defined names, 814 were identified as lakes, 183 as reservoirs, 87 as ponds and 12 as other (Basin, Creek, Dam, Flowage, Hole, Marsh, River or Slough). "body of water surrounded by land and filling a depression or basin," early 12c., from Old French lack (12c., Modern French lac) and directly from Latin lacus "pond, pool, lake," also "basin, tank, reservoir" (related to lacuna "hole, pit"), from PIE *laku- "body of water, lake, sea" (source also of Greek lakkos "pit, tank, pond," Old Church Slavonic loky "pool, puddle, cistern," Old Irish loch "lake, pond"). A state‐by‐state analysis showed similar patterns, but may be influenced by small sample sizes in certain states. Before excluding them, we noted that 100% of all ponds and reservoirs in the NLA had the naming convention of Name Pond or Name Reservoir. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: What Is in a “Lake” Name? Importance of lake origin - hydrology (inputs,outputs) - basin shape - chemistry, inc. nutrients - age . Within the global hydrologic cycle, freshwater lakes constitute only about 0.009 percent of all free water, which amounts to less than 0.4 percent of all continental fresh water. The continental lake nomenclature relationships exhibited significant differences among ecoregions (Fig. Finally, we thank two anonymous reviewers and Alan Steinman for useful comments on an earlier version of this article. Lake, any relatively large body of slowly moving or standing water that occupies an inland basin of appreciable size. Lake area was a significant predictor of a lake's name: as lakes increased in size, the likelihood of being called Lake Name significantly increased (predicted logit = −1.55(±0.10) + 0.29(±0.05) × ln (lake area); Χ2 = 43.06, P < 0.0001; Fig. The simplest classification is based on the dimension o f a lake. Gaelic speakers (in Ireland, Scotland and Wales) predominantly use Lake Name nomenclatures. Rhode Island was not represented in the 814 lake NLA dataset. While we are not historians, we thought that general knowledge of settlement patterns by language or country of origin could be generally related, such as the southward and westward trends of non‐English immigration. This classification recognizes 11 major lake types that are divided into 76 subtypes. The probability of a waterbody having a Lake Name in the contiguous U.S.A. increased moving southward, as expected (χ2 = 31.76, P < 0.0001; Fig. While each lake is unique and deserving of an individual management plan, it is impractical and unrealistic for broad units of government to strive to manage all lakes individually. There were significant differences in naming convention among provinces (likelihood ratio test, χ2 = 439.84, P < 0.0001), which was largely driven by French‐speaking Québec, where 89% of the lakes had a Lake Name. We note, however, that some lakes may have changed their nomenclature over time, as different waves of colonizers occupied the same regions, making definitive conclusions regarding the historical influences sometimes murky. Our examination of lake nomenclature across the continental U.S.A. generally supported our hypotheses. We examined the potential drivers of lake naming patterns using the U.S. EPA National Lakes Assessment database of. Okauchee Lake in Waukesha County is an example of a lake in this study type with long-term data. 2c), and eastward (χ2 = 5.66, P = 0.02; Fig. This database contains the names of 152 lakes (most >50 ha in surface area) sampled by the Irish Environmental Protection Agency (Free et al., 2007) as part of the creation of a reference‐based typology and ecological assessment system. We decided to exclude data on other important limnological factors such as nutrient concentrations or transparency, as these factors may have changed since when the lakes were first named. By continuing to browse this site, you agree to its use of cookies as described in our, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use, The Best and Worst Country in the World: Perspectives on the Early Virginia Landscape, Applications of the NHD at the U.S. environmental protection agency, The global abundance and size distribution of lakes, ponds, and impoundments, Iberia and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History, Vol. States where more than 50% of all waterbodies had a Lake Name were Maryland, Virginia and Florida, with California and Connecticut exhibiting an even divide in their Lake Name versus Name Lake waterbodies. This relationship was primarily driven by lakes in Scotland, the only country that individually exhibited a significant relationship between lake nomenclature and lake size (χ2 = 25.62, P < 0.0001; all other countries had P ≥ 0.09). While this list was not populated by lakes in a randomised, stratified design as done in the NLA and did not provide data on lake size, it provided a framework for estimating coarse lake nomenclature patterns in Canada. Lakes Portal data, as well as the U.S. EPA for their NLA data and Wikipedia. 1973 Len Evans, Australian Complete Book of Wine: "its influence and the quality of wine it … If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Even the frozen continent of Antarctica still has around 400 lakes in its warmer areas.Lakes are mostly found in Louisiana, which was settled as a colony of France in the late 1600s before being ceded to Spain in 1763, is unsurprisingly also one of the heaviest users of Lake Name. All analyses were conducted in JMP v.11.0.0 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, U.S.A.). In contrast, when Name Lake is used, terms for Lake include Broad, Flash, Mere, Mor, Pool, Tarn and Water. A closer examination of some state‐by‐state history may help explain the higher than expected use of the non‐English Lake Name format in certain states. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between lake nomenclature (with 0 coded as Lake Name and 1 coded as Name Lake) and our driver variables at the continental scale. In Ireland, lakes were almost exclusively referred to as Lough (with three exceptions) and 62.5% are of the type Lake Name. The colony's name later stuck when the conveniently named King Charles I of England took over in 1629. Across the ecoregions, Name Lakes represented >75% of all waterbodies in the Western Forested Mountains (II), Mostly Glaciated Dairy Region (VII), Glaciated Upper Midwest and Northeast (VIII), Xeric West (III), South Central Cultivated Great Plains (V), Corn Belt and Northern Great Plains (VI), Willamette and Central Valleys (I), and Great Plains Grass and Shrublands (IV). Of the 1722 lakes on the Canadian list, 410 (24%) had a Lake Name and the remaining 1312 (76%) had a Name Lake, similar to the ratio observed in the NLA dataset. Second, we conducted both backward and forward stepwise regression to assess all possible predictor combinations using stopping rules of minimum AICc or BIC (Bayesian information criterion), and the best model was again selected based on the lowest AICc. Also, as we suspected, lake depth did not play a role in lake naming. The relationship with lake size was based on a basic and perhaps misguided intuition about human psychology. The flow of a river is usually not straight but the river bends and meanders throughout … These results support the contention relating much of lake nomenclature to linguistic history, but that where linguistic flexibility occurs (Ireland, Scotland and Wales), lake size is also an important feature of naming patterns. Lakes Portal (, as described in Hughes et al. For all the U.K. lakes, we used the same criteria as for the U.S. lakes: i.e., waterbodies had to be >4 ha in size, with ponds and reservoirs excluded. Lake Classification A lake’s ability to support plant and animal life defines its level of productivity, or trophic state. Next in line are Recreational Development lakes such as Chippewa and Lobster. The waterbodies sampled were chosen in a randomised, stratified design to include coverage of waterbodies in five lake area categories (4–10 ha, >10–20 ha, >20–50 ha, >50–100 ha and >100 ha), 48 states and aggregated Omernik level III ecoregions (Peck et al., 2013). Across Great Britain and Ireland, all lakes >1435 ha were Lake Name, regardless of which country the lakes were located. The final list consisted of 3468 lakes. Many a discussion among limnologists or with a member of the general public has at some point turned to the subject of why the names of some lakes in North America start with Lake, followed by their name (i.e., Lake Name), such as Lake Sunapee, while many others are reversed (i.e., Name Lake), such as Trout Lake. By solving the logistic regression equation with the predicted odds ratio of the logit = 0.5, we determined that the lake surface area at which there was an equal probability that a lake would either be called Lake Name or Name Lake occurred at 1100 km2 (lakes larger than this size represent 0.00004% of lakes globally in the Downing et al. Tadalafil tablets 20 mg spc. Generally, with the exception of Connecticut and Vermont, the other New England states (Maine, Massachusetts and New Hampshire) behaved as expected, with their waterbodies dominated by Name Lakes, as in England. This lake has been monitored for water quality since 1984 (Wisconsin District Lake Studies Team, 2002). We had to exclude 61 of these lakes because no names were listed, or only a proper name was listed without specifying the order of ‘lake’ and the name of waterbody. None of those states had many large lakes, as would be expected if their Lake Names were driven solely by size, so it is possible that subsequent migrations of settlers from countries where Romance languages or Gaelic were spoken (e.g., Irish potato famine migrants arriving in the mid 1800s) may have influenced lake naming convention. A lake is a large body of natural water accumulated in a depression. In Douglas County there are three lake classifications. We explored potential drivers of lake nomenclature in the U.S.A. using data obtained from the NLA, focusing on variables that likely influenced a lake's naming convention. lake morphology . There is, however, a lack of consensus on definitions used to distinguish between lakes and ponds. Particularly in temperate zones, such conditions favour a plentiful oxygen content, and the lake is said to be oligotrophic. Ecoregions where Lake Name was more common were: Southern Florida Coastal Plain (XIII), Southern Coast Plain (XII) and Eastern Coastal Plains (XIV). In addition to the continental analyses, we compared the prevalence of Lake Names versus Name Lakes among Level III EPA ecoregions and states (Fig. Because there were only two Irish lakes matching our criteria in the U.K. Lake Portal dataset, we used the List of loughs of Ireland (; accessed 12 April 2016) for Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. We thank many supportive colleagues for initiating and contributing to the catalyst of this work.
lake origin and classification 2021