[75] The conflict mostly consisted of military action aimed at League members, such as the Battle of Fontaine-Française, though the Spanish launched a concerted offensive in 1595, taking Le Catelet, Doullens and Cambrai (the latter after a fierce bombardment), and in the spring of 1596 capturing Calais by April. Comparing the English Civil War and the French Revolution Introduction The English Civil War and the French Revolution were some of the events that shaped history in the 18th century. The Italian revival of art and classical learning interested Francis I, who established royal professorships in Paris, equipping more people with the knowledge necessary to understand ancient literature. The popular unrest caused by the assassination, coupled with the resistance by the city of Orléans to the siege, led Catherine de' Medici to mediate a truce, resulting in the Edict of Amboise on 19 March 1563.[51]. He was finally received into Paris in March 1594, and 120 League members in the city who refused to submit were banished from the capital. [52] His mother continued to play a principal role in politics, and she joined her son on a Grand Tour of the kingdom between 1564 and 1566, designed to reinstate crown authority. The Edict of Beaulieu granted many concessions to the Calvinists, but these were short-lived in the face of the Catholic League – which the ultra-Catholic, Henry I, Duke of Guise, had formed in opposition to it. [14] The Affair of the Placards began in 1534, and started with protesters putting up anti-Catholic posters. [5], Printing in mass editions (including cheap pamphlets and broadsides) allowed theological and religious ideas to be disseminated at an unprecedented pace. The city prepared to fight to the death rather than accept a Calvinist king. [78] In 1681, he instituted the policy of dragonnades, to intimidate Huguenot families to convert to Roman Catholicism or emigrate. This pivotal historical event involved a complete breakdown of state control resulting in series of riots and massacres in which Catholic mobs killed between 5,000 and 30,000 Protestants over a period of weeks throughout the entire kingdom. On 12 May 1588, the Day of the Barricades, a popular uprising raised barricades on the streets of Paris to defend the Duke of Guise against the alleged hostility of the king, and Henry III fled the city. In 1583 the Throckmorton plot was discovered. Advise given by a Catholike gentleman… was translated by John Eliot in 1589. The Edict of Amboise was generally regarded as unsatisfactory by all concerned, and the Guise faction was particularly opposed to what they saw as dangerous concessions to heretics. The following year, mobs carried out iconoclasm in more than 20 cities and towns; Catholic urban groups attacked Protestants in bloody reprisals in Sens, Cahors, Carcassonne, Tours and other cities. The Battle of White Mountain (1620) in Bohemia was one of the decisive battles of the Thirty Years' War that ultimately led to the forced conversion of the Bohemian population back to Roman Catholicism. Humanism, which began much earlier in Italy, arrived in France in the early sixteenth century, coinciding with the beginning of the French Protestant Reformation. [64], In the absence of the duke of Anjou, disputes between Charles and his youngest brother, the duke of Alençon, led to many Huguenots congregating around Alençon for patronage and support. Discussion and written works circulated in Paris unimpeded for more than a year.[when?] Following the Spanish capture of Amiens in March 1597 the French crown laid siege until its surrender in September. In contrast to the previous hardline policies of Henry II and his father Francis I, they began introducing gradual concessions to Huguenots. All of this created an 'event', showed the power of the written word and led to the next pamphlet: The execution of justice (1583) was a justification by the chief advisor of the Queen, William Cecil, of his measures against Catholic plotters, who he called "stirrers of sedition, and adherents to the traitors of the Realm." Historians estimate that Provençal troops killed hundreds to thousands of residents there and in the 22 to 28 nearby villages they destroyed. The background was the execution in 1581 of the Jesuit priest Edmund Campion among others. [55] Much of the Huguenots' financing came from Queen Elizabeth of England, who was likely influenced in the matter by Sir Francis Walsingham. The Waldensians had recently affiliated with the Reformed tradition of Protestantism, participating in "dissident religious activities". [15][21] Francis had been severely criticized for his initial tolerance towards Protestants, and now was encouraged to repress them. He urged the French not to join the Catholic League and reminded his audience that sovereignty comes from God, who alone "translates the sceptre", and not the people. Parma was subsequently wounded in the hand during the Siege of Caudebec whilst trapped by Henry's army. A most notable moderate, at least initially, was the queen mother, Catherine de' Medici. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 2011. [57] The staggering royal debt and Charles IX's desire to seek a peaceful solution[58] led to the Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (8 August 1570), negotiated by Jeanne d'Albret, which once more allowed some concessions to the Huguenots. England’s Wars of Religion, Revisited. Under pressure from the Guise, Henry III reluctantly issued the Treaty of Nemours (July) and an edict suppressing Protestantism and annulling Henry of Navarre's right to the throne. The struggle that it started with Charles I led to the English Civil War. This assassination began the series of events known as the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. This chronicle was compiled by Anthony Colynet who translated texts from the French and did much primary research, piecing together the "actions, dispersed in the declarations, edicts, proscriptions, apologies, advertisements, agreements, articles and letters… as have been published from time to time." [73] Realising that Henry III had been right and that there was no prospect of a Protestant king succeeding in resolutely Catholic Paris, Henry agreed to convert, reputedly stating "Paris vaut bien une messe" ("Paris is well worth a Mass"). [31] He was arrested and due to be executed before being freed in the political chaos that marked the sudden death of Francis II, adding to the tensions of the period. A timeline chronology showing 17th Century Wars, the main wars of the seventeenth century, including name of war, dates and combatants Moderates, primarily associated with the French Valois monarchy and its advisers, tried to balance the situation and avoid open bloodshed. During this time, Jeanne d'Albret met and held talks with Catherine at Mâcon and Nérac. Germany, France, and the Netherlands each achieved a settlement of the religious problem by means of war, and in each case the solution contained original aspects. In the 1550s, the establishment of the Geneva church provided leadership to the disorganized French Calvinist (Huguenot) church. Many English Catholics supported the claim of the French princess, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, to the throne of England. It was a period in which there were new ideas formulated about the monarchy, religious toleration and civil living together. The Duke of Guise had been highly popular in France, and the Catholic League declared open war against King Henry III. Mercœur subsequently went to exile in Hungary. Wars of Religion, (1562–98) conflicts in France between Protestants and Roman Catholics. The posters were not Lutheran but were Zwinglian or "Sacramentarian" in the extreme nature of the anti-Catholic content—specifically, the absolute rejection of the Catholic doctrine of "Real Presence. The European religious wars were brutal, with the combined death toll ranging from 5.5 million to 18.5 million. Neither group sought toleration of Protestants, but wanted to reach some form of concord for the basis of a new unity. D isputes about the place of an organized and powerful Reformed minority (the Huguenots) in what was a Catholic state resulted in France being racked by nearly 40 years of confessional conflict in the late sixteenth century. The English Civil War was starting to brew when, the Scottish king, James I came into power. Seminole Wars 1814-1858 Anglo-Zulu War 1879 The Crimean War 1853-1856 The Plains Wars 1850s-1890s French Indian War 1754-1763 The Mahdist Revolt 1884 American Civil War 1861-1865 American War of Ind. Refusing to return to Paris, Henry III called for an Estates-General at Blois in September 1588. The crown tried to re-unite the two factions in its efforts to re-capture Le Havre, which had been occupied by the English in 1562 as part of the Treaty of Hampton Court between its Huguenot leaders and Elizabeth I of England. In the wake of the posters, the French monarchy took a harder stand against the protesters. The Battle of La Roche-l'Abeille was a nominal victory for the Huguenots, but they were unable to seize control of Poitiers and were soundly defeated at the Battle of Moncontour (30 October 1569). She was intent on preserving the independence of the throne. The Battle of Ivry, fought on 14 March 1590, was another decisive victory for Henry against forces led by the Duke of Mayenne. [14] Despite this, in January 1535, Catholic authorities decided that those classified as "Lutherans" were actually Zwinglians (also heretical), followers of Huldrych Zwingli. His invective was aimed at King Henry III, who had ordered the murder of the Guise brothers in 1588. This provoked the Second War and its main military engagement, the Battle of Saint-Denis, where the crown's commander-in-chief and lieutenant general, the 74-year-old Anne de Montmorency, died. Both repudiated their conversions after they escaped Paris. 19 terms. Abstract. Cecil had already ordered a libel in both English and French against the Guise family, in 1560, that is to say at the eve of the French Wars of Religion: Proclamation contenant la declaration de l'intention de la Maiesté de la Royne..., [London], 1560). Protesters attacked and massacred Catholic laymen and clergy the following day in Nîmes, in what became known as the Michelade. Foreign powers were sucked into the conflict. It is a classical libel against them. ... the topic itself is loosely based around the Sri Lankan Civil war/human rights and governance during and after the war. The Wars of Religion. [78] While it did not prompt renewed religious warfare, many Protestants chose to leave France rather than convert, with most moving to the Kingdom of England, Brandenburg-Prussia, the Dutch Republic and Switzerland. Try Shorthand. [3] Humanist scholars, who approached theology from a new critical and comparative perspective, argued that exegesis of Scripture must be based on an accurate understanding of the language(s) and grammar(s) used in writing the Greek scriptures (New Testament) and also, later, the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament), rather than relying exclusively on the Vulgate, a Latin translation of the Bible, as in the Medieval period. "[45], The massacre of Vassy, on 1 March 1562, provoked open hostilities between the factions supporting the two religions. But their eventual return to Switzerland was followed by major developments in the Reformation that would later grow into Calvinism. In 1519 John Froben, a humanist printer, published a collection of Luther's works. [26] But by the middle of the century, the adherents to Protestantism in France had increased markedly in number and power, as the nobility in particular converted to Calvinism. This population, known as the Camisards, revolted against the government in 1702, leading to fighting that continued intermittently until 1715, after which the Camisards were largely left in peace. Although it bears some similarity to other translations from the French, this is another original text in the Minster collection. Thirty Years' War. French wars of religion (the wars of religion) 49 terms. Corruption among the clergy showed the need for reform and Lutheran ideas made impressions of such hope. Boucher amended his text to target his successor, Henry IV, king of France (and of Navarre). Trevor Dupuy, Curt Johnson and David L. Bongard, The Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography, (Castle Books: Edison, 1992), p. 98. However, the House of Guise, having an advantage in the King's wife, Mary, Queen of Scots, who was their niece, moved quickly to exploit the situation at the expense of their rivals, the House of Montmorency. English Civil War _____ was the war fought between supporters of the English monarchy and supporters of parliament. A treatise towching the right, title, and interest of the most excellent Princesse Marie, Queene of Scotland (1584) was among many printed Catholic responses to Cecil's Execution of justice. 8 terms. The crown hastily negotiated a truce of seven months with Alençon and promised Casimir's forces 500,000 livres to stay east of the Rhine,[67] but neither action secured a peace. The advise is followed by fresh news from Normandy: a peasant tax revolt (the 'Gautiers'), manipulated by the Catholic League, was crushed by the royal army in April 1589. [69] Yet, the Third Estate refused to vote for the necessary taxes to fund this war. This pamphlet illustrates the appetite for news at this time and was possessed by the Archbishop of York, Tobie Matthews. On 1 March, however, a faction of the Guise family's retainers attacked a Calvinist service in Wassy-sur-Blaise in Champagne, massacring the worshippers and most of the residents of the town. Clément was killed on the spot, taking with him the information of who, if anyone, had hired him. Mercœur's daughter and heiress was married to the Duke of Vendôme, an illegitimate son of Henry IV. 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Calvinist pamphlets mocked three main enemies who were also England's enemies: translations from French were made, mainly against the Guise family, the Pope and Philip II of Spain who supported the Catholic League and who tried to invade England in 1588. In early 1598, the king marched against Mercœur in person, and received his submission at Angers on 20 March 1598. Despite the campaigns between 1590 and 1592, Henry IV was "no closer to capturing Paris". Leslie was forced to flee to France where he composed, among other pamphlets, this treatise. The two books of 1591 were different in every way. England's main enemy, Spain, intervened to support the Catholic cause. Refer to religious arguments in addition to your own. "[14] Protestantism became identified as "a religion of rebels,"[why?] Henry IV's wise governance and selection of able administrators did leave a legacy of a strong centralized government, stability, and economic prosperity that has gained him the reputation as France's best and most beloved monarch, earning him the designation "Good King Henry". Religious tensions continued to affect politics for many years to come, though never to the same degree, and Henry IV faced many attempts on his life; the last succeeding in May 1610. Despite Henry according his youngest brother Francis the title of Duke of Anjou, the prince and his followers continued to create disorder at court through their involvement in the Dutch Revolt. The League also had a large following among the urban middle class. The League presses began printing anti-royalist tracts under a variety of pseudonyms, while the Sorbonne proclaimed on 7 January 1589, that it was just and necessary to depose Henry III, and that any private citizen was morally free to commit regicide. For Henry and the Protestant army at least, Parma was no longer a threat. The royal army was commanded by a Catholic, the duke of Montpensier. Works such as Farel's translation of the Lord's Prayer, The True and Perfect Prayer, with Lutheran ideas became popular among the masses. The leadership of the Catholic League had devolved to the Duke de Mayenne, who was appointed Lieutenant-General of the kingdom. This is an important part of the Minster Library collection, because the French source does not survive. Some of his suite insulted the worshippers, and from insults they proceeded to blows, and the Duke himself was accidentally wounded in the cheek. The council debated the religious issue at Poissy all summer. This signaled the rise of England as a world naval power. It also involved a dynastic power struggle between powerful noble families in the line for succession to the French throne: the wealthy, ambitious, and fervently Catholic ducal House of Guise (a cadet branch of the House of Lorraine, who claimed descent from Charlemagne) and their ally Anne de Montmorency, Constable of France (i.e., commander in chief of the French armed forces) versus the less wealthy House of Condé (a branch of the House of Bourbon), princes of the blood in the line of succession to the throne who were sympathetic to Calvinism. On 22 August, an assassin made a failed attempt on Coligny's life, shooting him in the street from a window. In France a civil war between Calvinists, called Huguenots (led by the Bourbons), and the Catholic majority population (led by the Guise family) turned into a complicated mess. The Parlement of Paris instituted criminal charges against the King, who now joined forces with his cousin, the Huguenot, Henry of Navarre, to war against the League. The mediation of Catherine de'Medici led to the Edict of Union, in which the crown accepted almost all the League's demands: reaffirming the Treaty of Nemours, recognizing Cardinal de Bourbon as heir, and making Henry of Guise Lieutenant-General. The state of affairs in 1589 was that Henry of Navarre, now Henry IV of France, held the south and west, and the Catholic League the north and east. The years 1589-90 generated dozens of printed texts in English about France, because of seizure of power by Catholic militants (the League). They are representative of the variety of the texts in circulation. Historians estimate that 2,000 Huguenots were killed in Paris and thousands more in the provinces; in all, perhaps 10,000 people were killed. Indeed, in January 1599, Henry had to visit the Parliament in person to have the Edict passed. However, they were permitted the freedom to worship only within the three towns of La Rochelle, Montauban, and Nîmes, and even then only within their own residences. In November, William of Orange led an army into France to support his fellow Protestants, but, the army being poorly paid, he accepted the crown's offer of money and free passage to leave the country. This anonymous text was probably prepared just before the assassination of the Duke and Cardinal of Guise. It was part of the wider Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Further readings     The pamphlets online:- Early English Books Online (by subscription); French Political Pamphlets; ...and a great exhibition about religious books held by Archbishop Matthews curated by my colleague Dr. Stefan Bauer: it is digitised here). Translated out of French into Englishe (London, 1583), held by York Minster Library.- See: Hugh Dunthorne, Britain and the Dutch Revolt, 1560-1700 (Cambridge, 2013): "Of the thirty-six English-language pamphlets relating to the Dutch Revolt which were published in London between 1566 and 1584, no fewer than twenty-six were translations from Dutch or French, the two main languages of the Low Countries" (p. 8).- Malcom Walsby, "Printing in French in the Low Countries in the Early Sixteenth Century: Patterns and Networks", in The Multilingual Muse: Transcultural Poetics in the Burgundian Netherlands (Cambridge, 2017), p. 54-70. [47] As conflicts continued and open hostilities broke out, the Crown revoked the Edict under pressure from the Guise faction. Accordingly, the Estates-General pressured Henry III into conducting a war against the Huguenots. Henry's army swept through Normandy, taking town after town throughout the winter. In reaction to the Peace, Catholic confraternities and leagues sprang up across the country in defiance of the law throughout the summer of 1568. The situation degenerated into open warfare even without the King having the necessary funds. Leonard. Francis I, however, had no quarrel with the established religious order and did not support reformation. First she might revert to persecution of the Huguenots. [33] (In the polemics that followed, the term "Huguenot" for France's Protestants came into widespread usage. For other French civil wars, see, Corruption of the established religious system, The "Amboise conspiracy," or "Tumult of Amboise", Colloquy of Poissy and the Edict of Saint-Germain, The "Armed Peace" (1563–1567) and the "second" war (1567–1568), St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre and after (1572–1573), Death of Charles IX and the "fifth" war (1574–1576), The Catholic League and the "sixth" war (1576–1577), The "seventh" war (1579–1580) and the death of Anjou (1584), The Estates-General of Blois and assassination of Henry of Guise (1588), Henry IV's "Conquest of the Kingdom" (1589–1593), Resolution of the War in Brittany (1598–1599). Coligny, along with many other Calvinist nobles, arrived in Paris for the wedding of the Catholic princess Margaret of France to the Protestant prince Henry of Navarre on 18 August 1572. Defenestration of Prague ... French Wars of Religion Test. [12] Furthermore, the reduction of salvation to a business scheme based on the 'good works for sale' system added to the injury. The exact number of wars and their respective dates are the subject of continued debate by historians; some assert that the Edict of N… De Iusta Henrici Tertii abdicatione e Francorum regno was written by a radical French Catholic preacher, Jean Boucher, in Paris in 1589. On 17 August 1563, Charles IX was declared of age at the Parlement of Rouen ending the regency of Catherine de Medici. The Duke was told that the King wished to see him in the private room adjoining the royal chambers. [62] Over the next few weeks, the disorder spread to more than a dozen cities across France. The text supports the idea of a Gallican Church against the power of the Pope: the Catholic League was seen as an attempt to rule France directly from Rome. It was reprinted in 1609, and was a powerful statement of Protestant history and a reminder to its audience of the dangers posed by the internal enemy at home. [17], The lower orders of society were where Protestantism made its impact in France. With that victory Henry's concerns then turned to the situation in Brittany where he promulgated the Edict of Nantes and sent Bellièvre and Brulart de Sillery to negotiate a peace with Spain. She died there on 9 June 1572, and for centuries after her death, Huguenot writers accused Catherine de' Medici of poisoning her. Quizlet Live. These pamphlets are also a reminder of the explosion of print in the sixteenth century. William Dugdale was 17 th-century English historian known for his works of antiquity of English aristocracy and monastics.While not his most notable work, ‘Troubles in England’ is a treatise written to describe the wars that influenced Europe and England during the 17 th-century. It focused on the biblical basis of faith as a free gift of God, salvation by faith alone, and the importance of understanding in prayer. [41] Catherine chose the third course to pursue. E-mail Citation » [25] The French intensified the fight against heresy in the 1540s forcing Protestants to gather secretly to worship. The edict of Nantes was revoked later in 1685 with the Edict of Fontainebleau by Louis XIV of France. It was a widely distributed pamphlet and despite its subversive message was held in the library of Toby Matthew, Archbishop of York (d.1628). Sir Francis Throckmorton was convicted of high treason and executed for having conspired to murder Elizabeth I and to replace her with her Catholic cousin and French princess, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots. Humanism, which began much earlier in Italy, arrived in France in the early sixteenth century, coinciding with the beginning of the French Protestant Reformation. To make sure that no contender for the French throne was free to act against him, the King had the Duke's son imprisoned. [1]—Alexis de Tocqueville, L’Ancien régime… The sight of his blood enraged his followers, and a general massacre of the inhabitants of Vassy ensued. On 23 December 1588, at the Château de Blois, Henry of Guise and his brother, the Cardinal de Guise, were lured into a trap by the King's guards. -In 1st/Bohemian phase, civil war Catholic League (him) vs. Prot. Historians estimate that in the 1560s more than half of the nobility were Calvinist (or Huguenot), and 1,200–1,250 Calvinist churches had been established; by the outbreak of war in 1562, there were perhaps two million Calvinists in France. In one correspondence, he reported that 600 copies of such works were being shipped to France and Spain and were sold in Paris.[6]. [54] After the Duke was killed in action, his troops remained under the employ of the Huguenots who had raised a loan from England against the security of the Jeanne d'Albret's crown jewels. The book was banned (but reached York). Others reconverted to Catholicism for survival, and the remainder concentrated in a small number of cities where they formed a majority. Matters at Court were complicated as King Charles IX openly allied with the Huguenot leaders — especially Admiral Gaspard de Coligny. By April, the crown was already seeking to negotiate,[66] and the escape of Alençon from court in September prompted the possibility of an overwhelming coalition of forces against the crown, as John Casimir of the Palatinate invaded Champagne. At the Battle of Jarnac (16 March 1569), the prince of Condé was killed, forcing Admiral de Coligny to take command of the Protestant forces, nominally on behalf of Condé's 15-year-old son, Henry, and the 16-year-old Henry of Navarre, who were presented by Jeanne d'Albret as the legitimate leaders of the Huguenot cause against royal authority. After much posturing and negotiations, Henry III rescinded most of the concessions that had been made to the Protestants in the Edict of Beaulieu with the Treaty of Bergerac (September 1577), confirmed in the Edict of Poitiers passed six days later.[68]. Indeed, Henry II was even more severe against the Protestants than Francis I had been. The reformed politicke. This, however, was no easy task. It entailed rebellions against the crown, inter-communal violence and a struggle between moderate Catholics and radicals. Philip Benedict, ‘Un roi, une loi, deux fois: Parameters for the History of Catholic–Protestant Co-existence in France, 1555–1685’, in O. Grell & B. Scribner (eds), Tolerance and Intolerance in the European Reformation (1996), pp. [46] A group of Protestant nobles, led by the prince of Condé and proclaiming that they were liberating the king and regent from "evil" councillors, organised a kind of protectorate over the Protestant churches. The massacres provoked further military action, which included Catholic sieges of the cities of Sommières (by troops led by Henri I de Montmorency), Sancerre, and La Rochelle (by troops led by the duke of Anjou). The Contre-Guyse with its fleur-de-lys was printed in 1589. The restorer of the French estate discovering the true causes of these warres in France (1589) was a translation of Le restaurateur de l'Estat françois, printed in France in 1588. Finally, in October 1685, Louis issued the Edict of Fontainebleau, which formally revoked the Edict and made the practice of Protestantism illegal in France. A leader of the Catholic League, he invoked the hereditary rights of his wife, Marie de Luxembourg, who was a descendant of the dukes of Brittany and heiress of the Blois-Brosse claim to the duchy as well as Duchess of Penthièvre in Brittany, and organized a government at Nantes. By the Peace of Montpellier in 1622, the fortified Protestant towns were reduced to two: La Rochelle and Montauban. Nhat Nguyen European History Mr. Heaston 30 Jan 2014 The Similarities and The Differences between The English Civil War and The French Revolution Civil wars, protests, and revolutions have taken place in all countries in this world. Their differences and similarities approach to the previous hardline policies of Henry II was even more severe against the of., Charles W. A., and later in July, there were ideas! 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