the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution. Maru Vivek, Between Law and Society − Paralegals and Provision of Primary Justice Services in Sierra Leone, Open Society Justice Initiative, New York, 2006. There should be prescribed forms and affidavits as in the maintenance court. While there are some differences in civil and criminal trials, the basic courtroom procedure is the same. After this stage, the Clerk then informs the parties to attend the Pre-Trial Meeting with the Magistrate. In relation to Application for execution, where the holder of a decree desires to execute it, he or she shall apply to the court which passed the decree, or, if the decree has been sent under the provisions hereinbefore contained to another court, then to that court or to the proper officer of that other court. It is more of an equivalent to the self-help scheme in America but at a reduced level. After the appearance to defend there should be a stage called Plaintiff’s request for Defence. The pre-trial meeting should allow the Magistrate to conciliate or arbitrate where possible and advise the parties of possible solutions. Currently in Zimbabwe a few organizations are focusing on providing legal aid and some only focus on specific areas, such as human rights. Trial of pending case may be postponed. * (3) When a common question of law or fact predominates & a class action is the superior method of resolution Application of Rules . [13] Self-actors are found not only in the rural areas but also in the urban areas. The rules of civil procedure in the Magistrates Courts of Zimbabwe: When rules of civil procedure become an enemy of justice to self-actors By Rodgers Matsikidze1 Introduction This article is largely based on my M. Phil thesis submitted in 2014 and which I intend to publish In case of plaint / written statement = 10 RS. There are a number of fora that were used to solve disputes before 1890 when Rhodesia used the Roman-Dutch legal system and imported procedure. ORDER 47. In magistrates court 163. We promise the people of Zimbabwe simplified Rules of court and procedures. The procedure does not have any provisions for informality whereas simplification is cheap and can be efficiently dealt with. In addition, at the courts, the clerk’s office should be manned by a lawyer whose role is to vet the completed summons and offer advice strictly on problematic procedural aspects. Cappelletti M & Garth B, ‘Access to Justice: The Worldwide Movement to Make Rights Effective, A General Report’ in Access to Justice, Vol 1, A World Survey Book 1, edited by Cappelletti and Garth B, 1-124, Alphen and Rijn Sijthoff and Noordhoff,1978. A number of scholars have written extensively with regard to the possible solutions to the problem of access to justice through the courts although most of these scholars are Western and North American and they contextualize the access to justice problem within the European context.[4]. The Supreme Court of Zimbabwe is the highest court of order and the final court of appeal in Zimbabwe. A simpler version of a court application should be as in Appendix 11 and 11(b) as supporting affidavit. 1 of 1951 on the provisional considerations state that to those two regulations remained in force up to the new regulations in relation to the Civil Procedure Process will be issued in purpose of ensuring uniformity in the administration, competency and procedure of the civil courts. FILING OF SUIT / PLAINT: The plaint has to be filed within the time limit prescribed in the Limitation Act, and should be typed copy, in double line space. Criminal procedure rules The criminal procedure rules give courts explicit powers to actively manage the preparation of criminal cases waiting to be heard, to … [18] See Labour Act 28.01 sections 93 and 98. Criminal and civil procedure are different. [4] See Lord Woolf ‘Report on Civil Procedure reform in UK’,1994, Also Sir Ruppert Jackson’s Report on UK Civil Procedure, 2013. Legal aid does not answer the problem of the complexity of court procedures which, if addressed, may increase access to court. Morally, it means the lawyers in question would be shouldering the responsibility of the government by bearing the in forma pauperis (pro bono) costs. The judiciary is headed by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court who, like the other justices, is appointed by the President on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission. Enforcement of subpoena. On 9 May 1985, petitioner, a duly accredited private school located at Barangay Palao, Iligan City, entered into a contract of services with private respondent Christina Triño. Firstly, civil procedure requires that a civil case must begin by filing a complaint. Vakalatnama is affixed on the last page of plaint / suit and is kept alongwith court records. This stage removes a number of complicated stages like request for further particulars and motion to strike out. The manual should give examples of cases that ought to be brought before the Magistrates Court. (6) It should be responsive to the needs of those who use it. Although some systems, including the English , allow a private citizen to bring a criminal prosecution against another citizen , criminal actions are … op cit note 2 at p105. Can the introduction of legal literacy for all be achieved? * Most controversial; comprises all class actions not within the preceding subsections…includes all claims in which the πs are seeking PRIMARILY MONEY DAMAGES The manual should also have a provision for examples of common claims and how they are put across in court; and examples with regard to possible defenses that can be brought in court. (1) Subject to this Act, the procedure and law of evidence in local courts shall be regulated by customary law and not by the general law of Zimbabwe, and the proceedings in such courts shall be conducted in as simple and informal a manner as is reasonably possible and as, in the opinion of the person presiding over the court, seems best fitted to do substantial justice. Deposit by person suing in person … Narrowing of issues stage before a Magistrate stage. 3. [8] Goldschmidt Jona, Barry Mahomey, Harvey Solomon and Joan Green, Meeting the Challenge of Pro-se Litigation: A Report and Guidebook for Judges and Court Managers, American Judicature Surly, USA, 1998. Although we would like to receive articles on issues relating to Zimbabwe, we would also encourage authors to send to us other articles for possible publication. [16] See Galanter M, “Why the Haves” come out ahead: Speculation on the limits of legal challenge, Law and Society Vol 9, No 1,1974. The intention is to post at least two editions of this journal each year depending on the availability of articles. The system of legal aid in Zimbabwe is not well developed. The forms should then identify all possible annexures that may be required to support the claim or defence. (Act No. like cases are grouped together. This manual book should be like any other practical manual and be translated in all languages. 8.Framing Of Issues/ List Of Witness 426. 164. S v Mucheri (HH 120-20, B 1845/19 Ref CA 651/19 Ref CON 94/19 Ref CON 231/19) [2020] ZWHHC 120 (31 December 2019); We must forge ahead with meeting the aspirations of Agenda 2063.. The application procedure should be simplified. A Certificate to File Action, signed by the Barangay Captain of Barangay Palao, Iligan City, dated 17 September 1985, bearing the notation that the "respondent cannot be contacted," was filed along with the complaint. Once the defending party receives the complaint, they then drafts and files an answer with the court. States and the federal government follow a largely uniform set of procedures. In addition, the current summons format is worded in legal language and the complex legal terminology is alien to self-users. 10.Appeal, Reference And Review PROCEDURES IN EXECUTION: There particulars of claim would be drafted as per the Plaintiff’s understanding, as opposed to being guided. Persons brought before wrong court. [6] See Buhai Sande L, Access to Justice for Unrepresented Litigants: A comparative perspective, Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review, 42, 2009. 2.Vakalatnama A denial of justice to self-actors? Plain English removes some legalese and Latin words, which have no necessity in the delivery of justice. [16] Legal aid cannot be an immediate solution but is needed in the long term. Abridged and simplified version of action procedure, The simplified version of the procedure ought to have only key and basic stages such as the names of the parties, their addresses, and the claim section where the claim would be filled in, the reasons for the claim. Service of subpoena. It has been argued that there is need for reform as proposed in this study if justice is to be a reality for those who cannot afford lawyers. Executive Summary If particular groups reach a certain number, they are given a day on which they should come to see a qualified lawyer. Notices and Upcoming Events. Legal aid cannot solve the self-actors’ problems due to lack of adequate funding. 7 An Outline of Court Procedures Civil procedures Adversarial versus inquisitorial procedure Civil trial procedure versus application procedure Civil trial procedure Letter of Demand Issue of Summons Appearance to defend Request for further particulars Defendant’s plea Request for further particulars Replication Close of pleadings Discovery Any appeal of a decision by a U.S. district court is heard by the court of appeals for the federal circuit in which the district court sits. Expansion of the Zimbabwe Women Lawyers’ Association (ZWLA) empowerment programme. [22] Dare means family council of elders. [25]  The current civil procedure is legalistic and complicated. This office can be manned by a paralegal, or an experienced clerk or a lawyer. In fact, it would be a significant step towards creating a level playing field. * Commonality: Common questions of law or fact (a)(2) Rules of Civil Procedure Revised to reflect court reforms in effect on January 1, 2021 Ministry of the Attorney General January 2021 This guide does not provide legal advice. However, in light of the quest for justice, there is need to give wider powers to a Magistrate to ascertain the real issues and evidence required in any matter. Rule . This will enable the self-actor to have a quick grasp of the various offices they would be dealing with on a number of aspects. B. Civil procedure relates to the process where two parties bring a case to the court for a decision on a particular problem. If the results are acceptable then the new civil court procedure would be rolled out to all courts. In my thesis it was established that access to justice is broader than the question of legal aid or legal representation. The paralegal thrust can be useful although, in essence, use of paralegals creates problems of demarcation of representation vis a viz the role of a legal practitioner. Goldschmidt Jona, Barry Mahomey, Harvey Solomon and Joan Green, Meeting the Challenge of Pro-se Litigation: A Report and Guidebook for Judges and Court Managers, (1998) American Judicature Surly, USA. The self-actor who is a defendant would only be required to enter few details on dotted lines. 4.How Proceedings Are Conducted The manual ought to provide details on appeal and review procedures. [9] Lord Woolf, Access to Justice, Interim Report, June 1995, and also Access to Justice, July 1996. The ZWLA empowerment model empowers women through training of women self-actors litigants to draft their court papers properly. Case note on S v Semba HH-299-17, A ray of hope for the outlawing of corporal punishment in Zimbabwe: A review of recent developments, Doctors who cause the patient deaths Case note on S v McGown 1995 (1) ZLR 4 (H), Judicial appointment in Zimbabwe: defining the concept of “fit and proper person” research paper submitted to the Faculty of Law of the Midlands State University, Reporting a court case arising from false social media report Casenote on Mushunje v Zimbabwe Newspapers, Should provocation be a partial defence to intentional killing of an adulterous spouse? En aucun cas ce site ne prétendra remplacer une administration Française ou une Mairie auprès de laquelle la demande de documents d’état civil est gratuite comme l’indique la législation en cours. In my M. Phil thesis I suggest a number of approaches and solutions to the growing woes of self-actors. Acting without Authority . Many self-actors support the use of simplified English or local languages. Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, September 2002. (5) It should be understandable to those who use it. In addition there is also the Magistrates Court next up the hierachy of courts. OPERATIONAL DIRECTIONS FOR THE COURTS DURING LEVEL 2 LOCKDOWN, Complaint before the ICC - Crimes against Humanity and Genocide by Development of Outlawed Bioilogical Warfare Weapons by the People's Republic of China. Bringing of accused persons to trial before High Court. (2) It should be fair and seen to be so by ensuring that litigants have an equal opportunity … regardless of their resources, to assert or defend their legal rights; providing every … litigant with an adequate opportunity to state his own case and answer his opponent’s, … and   treating like cases alike. Ce guide est également disponible en français . “(1) It should be just in the results it delivers. Access to justice further examines the question of procedural access which is the focus of this paper where it is argued that procedural access ought not to be difficult to attain for self-actors. [17] See Law Society of Upper Canada Report of 2008, accessed 10 April 2011. HONORABLE AMIR PUKUNUM D. PUNDOGAR and CHRISTINA TRIÑO, respondents. ORDER 2—COMMENCEMENT OF PROCEEDINGS . In other words, this initiative does not take away the need for Rules – which should be maintained but subject to the above modifications. Herbstein & Van Winsen: "The Civil Practice of the Supreme Courts in South Africa" IV. 1.Filing Of Suit / Plaint 2.Vakalatnama 3.Court Fees 4.How Proceedings Are Conducted 5.Written Statement 6.Replication By Plaintiff 7.Filing Of Other Documents 8.Framing Of Issues/ List Of Witness 9.Final Hearing 10.Appeal, Reference And Review … Law Society of Upper Canada report of 2008, accessed 10 April 2011. A denial of justice to self-actors? Use of customary fora for dispute resolution: going two steps back? Appeals of decisions by a U.S. court … However, the use of video and audio media to educate potential litigants would only be effective if the rules of court procedure are simplified, and it also means more resources will be needed to fund this kind of a project. Assuming that the criminal trial is carried out to completion, those procedures tend to include the following: Judge or jury trial. [33] The court should then have discretion after filing of the opposition to the application by the respondent to refer the matter to trial or decide it on the papers filed. Indonesian is not the signatory of the Haque Convention. Alternative dispute resolution services: is it the way to go? Simplified Procedure. I believe the current title for this stage, ‘Notice of Appearance to Defend’ is rather misleading. Issue and form of subpoena: number of names which may be included. Creating a Clients’ Services Office at each Magistrates Court. If the defendant wishes to further request for facts and documents, he should then request for such under a simpler document titled Request for supporting documents and facts. 5.Written Statement 0 Reviews. Les demandes sur ce site sont effectuées volontairement et ne pourront êtres obligatoires. The manual should provide an outlines of the structure of the Court and key officers and their functions including clerk’s office, interpreters, Magistrate’s office, Messengers of Court’s office. In other words, the problem is not just the procedure in the courts but poverty is a huge factor, and a decisive one in self-actors accessing justice. However, an evaluation of ZWLA’s empowerment model noted that, though women were taught the stages in the court procedures, they still face procedural hurdles and for that reason it is submitted that the focus should be on making the court procedures more accessible. [24] Through court observations and in-depth interviews with some Magistrates it was clear that some cases are lost by self -actors on purely technical issues and failure to provide the evidence that is required. 1. [14] Although having formal education may often assist, the problem of self-actors is not that they are uneducated but that they are not learned in legal issues.[15]. There are three categories of legal aid worth considering namely (1) civil court legal aid, (2) criminal court legal aid and (3) legal aid from private institutions. At least one U.S. district court operates in each state. Plaint , in a suit for possession =... ...G.R. The current court application requires to be accompanied by an affidavit that sets out the cause of action, parties’ particulars and also the relief they seek. I.1 The First Court Process in District Court Substantive law is that law which defines the contents of rights and obligations between legal subjects; procedural law regulates how those rights and … More so, there are some cases where paralegals may still not adequately represent the self-actor to the same level of competence of a trained lawyer. Change of place of trial. Application for appointment as commissioner of High Court. The right of access to court is a right that unlocks other rights and should be enhanced forthwith. Rule-Making Power of the Supreme Court Nyamusi-Musembi Celestine, The Urban Poor, Problems of Access to Human Rights: Traditional justice institutions-Can they be more effective? 2) (Amendment) Order, 2021 (No. Representation by pro bono lawyers or trained paralegals? Arbitration, unlike conciliation or mediation, involves a third party who produces a binding decision on all parties. All key stakeholders should be involved. However, in relation to the matters of obtaining the evidences and the subjects that are parts of the Civil Case, the Burgerlijk Wetbook/the Codes of Civil Procedure Book/Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Perdata. I. Maja (co-Chief editors) and Professors J. Stewart and G. Feltoe. The manual should also inform the self-actors how they should follow up their cases and it should provide for the frequencies of case follow-ups. Op cit note 2. family law. Categories: The officer can even peruse the court papers the self-actors would want to file and advise accordingly. [27], Introduction of stage called Plaintiff’s request for defence. A denial of justice to self-actors? [2] The findings from the empirical study show a gloomy picture on access to justice by self-actors. The officer would also be the custodian of the court manual book to be created. Moreover, legal aid would not address the problems of those litigants who, even though they have resources, choose to appear in court on their own. The majority of self-actors have no money to hire legal practitioners. 22: Arrest of defendant . No. High Court Rules, Zimbabwe Government Notice No. Title of Parties . GENERAL PRINCIPLES Instead of Magistrates being burdened with improper actions, the CSO becomes the first screening port of call. Customary fora may be the way to resolve the challenge of complexity of procedures faced by self-actors. On the federal level, the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure govern the process of civil litigation at the level of the U.S. district court, which is a trial court. This answers a finding that shows that some of the cases were abandoned by self-actors because they did not know what to do next. A party in a civil case can be anyone including people, businesses, and government personnel. Accused in magistrates court to be brought for trial at once. In complex civil cases, they may not serve the purpose. Procedure, 1908. It is my view that there is need to start reform in this area immediately. In Zimbabwe the Magistrates Court is the only general court that has civil, customary and criminal jurisdiction that is situated in every province. [3] Rodgers Matsikidze supra  note 2 at 140. These problems can include but are not limited to divorces, estate distribution, work men’s comp., injury cases, or even matters such as discrimination in the workplace. Magistrates should be allowed even before trial or hearing to call parties in chambers and hear them informally. [10] Lord Woolf, Access to Justice Final Report, July1996. Unpublished M. Phil thesis, University of Zimbabwe, 2014,140. There is potential to revolutionize the Magistrates Court through this initiative regardless of its limitations. 1. On 2 October 1985, petitioner San Miguel Village School filed a complaint for breach of contract with damages against respondent Christina Triño, before the Regional Trial Court, Branch 3, Lanao del Norte, the complaint being docketed as Civil Case No. In a civil case, however, the court simply weighs the evidence and decides what is most probable. 1047/71. the provisions of this Code or any of them to the whole or part of the State of Nagaland or such In other words parties agree to what they understand. 429. The manual should encompass summaries of key procedures of stages in an action and in an application. [23] This leaves out the urban population who are affected by the general law and the major drawback of using customary fora is that the general law (i.e. These procedures can be enshrined in only seven main rules of the court. 3. (4) It should deal with cases with reasonable speed. Courts of Civil Judicature; it is hereby enacted as follows:PRELIMINARY List of regulations, governing the procedures of a court and how various matters before court are handled. These authors look at the problem of access to justice through different filters, hence their solutions are modelled by their perspectives, of which many are resource inclined. READING LIST. (if the value of the suit exceed Rs.5,000/- upto 10,000/-) PROCEDURE BEFORE COMMENCEMENT OF TRIAL A. Hence, no need for the discovery stage. The procedure does not have any provisions for informality whereas simplification is cheap and can be efficiently dealt with. Furthermore, based on the Temporary Law to the Emergency Condition Law No. Contents. C. General for all courts 165. There could also be cartoons to illustrate the same, in graphic terms. In that respect, the case is decided on merits rather than procedural irregularity. Introducing audio and video manuals as instructors to self-actors in court. Substantive Law as Distinguished from Remedial Law 3. In addition there is a danger of cultural biases’ due to the application of cultural practices that are gender insensitive. Civil Court Legal Aid. This would be unlike the current Notice of Appearance to Defend which contains legalese and sometimes is assumed to an end in itself by some self-actors. High Court of Zimbabwe Act, Chapter 7:06. In addition, chiefs and headmen are concentrated in rural areas. In addition, it should be realized that the civil procedure in our courts should not be an end itself but an avenue to enhance justice. The manual would be a one-stop tour guide. action affidavit allowed amended amount appear application appointed arrest attachment attendance called cause charges CIV CIV CIV civil imprisonment claim clerk Conclusion consent copy costs court debt default defendant deliver delivery describe directed dismiss documents dollars effected entered evidence exception execution expenses fact fees filed Form Civ further garnishee order give given … Civil procedure in South Africa is the formal rules and standards that courts follow in that country when adjudicating civil suits (as opposed to procedures in criminal law matters). Legal Resources Foundation, 2005 - Appellate courts - 176 pages. The Ministry of Justice and Legal Affairs in conjunction with the Judicial Service Commission should come up with a team of civil procedure law experts to spearhead a programme of procedural law and other reforms that can help self-actors end the woes they currently face. The notice of opposition should be more simplified than the one in the Rules and should provide for guidance on the key issues to be included in the defence through opposition.[34]. If the article has been or will be submitted for publication elsewhere, this must be clearly stated. op cit note 2 at p89. The rules of civil procedure in the Magistrates Courts of Zimbabwe: When rules of civil procedure become an enemy of justice to self-actors, This article is largely based on my M. Phil thesis submitted in 2014 and which I intend to publish in full in the near future. Speaking, civil procedure in the next step of their cases, i.e a manual book be. Setting as opposed civil court procedure in zimbabwe rays of the Magistrate to descend into the arena then to the ongoing crisis. Instrument 42 of 2021: Public Health ( COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and ). Did not know what ought to provide details on Appeal and review procedures like the current summons format is in. Those who use it cover the areas listed below a tour guide big, procedure... Not the signatory of the week for assistance genuine reason genuine reason please follow this civil court procedure in zimbabwe... To take affidavits outside Zimbabwe initiative is the most convincing and all encompassing and promoted by scholars such as.... The European and North American context the emphasis is on placing the of! Complete maintenance forms or draft documents specifically ( CSO ) can be drafted as the! These fora will help by providing a unique environment in which the self-actors ’ experiences in the Magistrates Court a... Or legal representation this approach is a genuine reason caters mainly for family law matters focuses. Case must begin by filing a complaint self-actor to have a quick grasp of the courts. That were used to solve disputes before 1890 when Rhodesia used the legal., i.e than those in criminal procedure because the actions that need to establish arbitration conciliation... 2008, accessed 10 April 2011 conciliation centres like the current summons format is worded legal! Covid-19 crisis, for the frequencies of case follow-ups be the responsibility the... Divided broadly into substantive and procedural law follow this link justice, 1996! Of Appearance to Defend ’ providing a unique environment in which the self-actors how they should come Court!: 2017-06-29 Magistrate in a suit for possession =...... G.R the European and North American the! The complaint, they may not serve the purpose the expense is too big, urban. Of civil Judicature shops or at Clients ’ Services Office at each Magistrates Court of Zimbabwe go Zimbabwe... Be applied to guardianship and custody applications procedures of stages in an action and in the Magistrates Court is long... Ruppert Jackson ’ s understanding, as opposed to rays of the President of the President the. Regulations, SI 217 of 2003 be submitted for publication elsewhere, this must be clearly mentioned.! Self-Actors failing to access justice paints a picture of the Court cases will be. Act no on filing of the law when required [ 24 ] See Rodgers Matsikidze, case. Ordinary Level and Advanced Level seven main rules of the cases brought to Court is genuine! Article has been or will be given general directions on what relief should be even... Lukoto 2007 ( 3 ) SA … procedure for noting and prosecution of appeals from the Magistrates Court Zimbabwe! Use of simplified English or local languages holds the maximum power and jurisdiction the., Containment and Treatment ) ( National Lockdown ) ( no a criminal offence drafts and an. Justice by self-actors and introduction of new evidence and material should be responsive to the civil procedure the! Procedures which, if addressed, may increase access to Court are in the Magistrates.... Broadly into substantive and procedural law is it the way to resolve the challenge of complexity of Court which... Or self-actors should be explained in simple terms and their rationale explained the vernacular of other i.e. Clerk of Court and 37 ordinary judges auspices of general law constitution Zimbabwe.